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Spline Shafts

A reliable source for Spline Shafts information and leading Spline Shafts Companies.

A spline shaft (a.k.a. splined shaft) is a rotating machine element that transfers power from one part to another using grooved shafts that interlock with mating pieces. The grooves provide protruding keys that fit into paired bushings, bearings, bores, gears, or other components made especially to mate with shaft splines. Read More…

Spline Shafts Spline shafts contain a series of ridges on a driveshaft that even out the rotation speed of the companion piece. The spline shaft's number of teeth and preferred pitch diameter determine the pitch of a spline gear.
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Leading Manufacturers

Hatfield, PA  |  800-314-3332

Since 1982, Isotech has been a leader in the broaching industry. You can trust the accuracy of these solutions, and the experts at Isotech are always available to assist you with your needs. Feel free to contact them today to learn more information!

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Isotech, Inc. $$$

Sussex, WI  |  262-820-1200

Broaching Technologies, LLC offers a unique approach to contract broaching services. Whether your part requires a blind or through keyway, a spline or other specialized feature, we have experienced personnel with the expertise to deliver a cut above.

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Broaching Technologies, LLC $$$

Freehold, NJ  |  732-972-5400

AmTech International is a leading manufacturer in the broaching industry. Our broaching machine production has a capability range from 2T-50T and up to 72? of stroke. We serve a variety of industries, including automotive, power transmission applications, and electronics. Metals that we use for broaching include stainless steel, brass, copper, and carbon steel.

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AmTech International $$$

New Hartford, CT  |  860-738-2525

With a great variety of available tooling & quick tooling for unique tooth forms, rely on ISO & AS certified Perry for all your gear & spline requirements. Offering expertise with many CNC operations, we do hobbing, shaping, tooling, broaching, machining & inspection for an array of gears, splines, worms & wheels, serrations of all kinds! Call for all your gearing needs – reverse engineering too!

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Perry Technology Corporation $$$

Los Angeles, CA  |  800-621-1945

Pioneer Broach Company is premier vendor of quality rotary broaching cutting tools. We specialize in custom spline, serration and hexalobular shaped rotary or wobble broaches, and also offer a complete line of standard hex and square rotary broach tools. Our new rotary broaching toolholder is designed for all modern CNC machines, mills and lathes.

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Pioneer Broach Company $$$
placeholder image Isotech, Inc. Broaching Technologies, LLC AmTech International Perry Technology Corporation Pioneer Broach Company

Spline shafts are also utilized to convey torque in systems involving both linear and rotary drives.Through the addition of these grooves, spline shafts offer greater rotational resistance in anti-rotation applications when compared to more conventional drive shafts.

Spline Shaft

Working Principle of a Splined Shaft

Spline shafts are created in order to optimize the amount of contact between the shaft surface and the interlocking components. A spline shaft locks into place when used for anti-rotary applications, stopping rotation while still permitting linear motion. The interlocking bearing or gear will frequently slide up or down the shaft when functioning as a linear guard to ensure accurate linear movement without permitting unwanted rotation. Splined shafts revolve while being interlocked with a gear, bearing, or other mechanism when employed in rotary applications. High levels of force or torque can be transmitted between mechanisms thanks to the close contact between matched surfaces. Different splined shaft designs are available that are made to meet the requirements of various power transmission applications.

Types of Splined Shafts

Depending on the size, spacing, and shape of the grooves and keys on the shaft and mated components, splined shafts come in a wide range of configurations. The most typical kinds of splined shafts are:

Splined Shafts with Parallel Keys

Keys are a component inserted between a shaft and the hub of another mechanism in order to prevent rotation while still allowing a linear sliding motion along the shaft. Parallel keys and grooves in splined shaft designs are square-shaped, with their profiles parallel to the shaft's axis. This design is appropriate for load-bearing applications that demand smooth motion.

Parallel Key Spline

Involute Spline Shafts

This version of a spline shaft uses involute splines featuring short and evenly spaced teeth which enable greater strength with more evenly distributed stress. Due to their propensity to self-center, increased structural strength, and simplicity of adjustment to a variety of dimensions, involute spline shafts are one of the most widely used varieties of spline shafts. Available types include:

  • Major diameter fit splines measure the space between the major diameter of the internal part to the outside diameter of the external part. Generally, the less clearance/difference between the two, the better as a negative value means the parts won’t fit and too much value means the parts fit too loosely affecting their efficiency.
  • Fillet root involute splines have a smooth curve between the teeth and the root diameter.
  • Flat root involute splines may not have the smooth curve and will have a flat portion between teeth.
Involute Spine

Materials Used for Making Spline Shafts

Spline shafts require a lot of pressure for their energy transmission applications and might warp and shatter after prolonged use. Therefore, it's critical that the user has the appropriate spline shaft material for their unique application.

Alloy steels: Alloy steels are frequently used in the production of splined shafts. Alloy steels are iron-based alloys, often known as ferrous alloys, that contain a combination of other metals to improve properties including ductility, hardness, toughness, and tensile strength. In addition to iron, alloy steels may also contain copper, nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and nickel.

Aluminum alloys: Aluminum alloys have a higher strength-to-weight ratio than steel but are less dense, making them a great lightweight option for many applications. They can function well under intense pressure and are harder than some steels. Additionally, when exposed to moisture, aluminum alloys are corrosion-resistant and won't rust.

Carbon steel: Iron in carbon steel contains up to 1.7 percent carbon. This substance creates components that are exceptionally accurate and robust.

Stainless steel alloys: These alloys combine the strength of iron with chromium (and other elements). In regards to spline shafts, stainless steels’ ability to withstand corrosion sets them apart. Chromium, a component of these alloys, interacts with air to form an oxidized coating that shields these materials against corrosion and rust. Additionally, stainless steels have a high tensile strength and are sturdy, long-lasting, and wear-resistant.

Splined Shaft Production Process

Splined shafts are frequently machined using sophisticated techniques to produce extremely precise teeth and grooves. Precision in spline machining is essential to ensuring that the shaft fits tightly against adjacent parts for the best possible power transmission. Spline shafts are mostly produced using one of two methods:

CNC (computer numerical control) turning: CNC turning makes use of lathes and cutting instruments that are controlled by CNC software. Even for exceedingly complex components, the shaft may be machined with excellent precision by rotating the tools and workpiece on up to 5 axes. Fine cuts can be made at almost any angle with speed unsurpassed by other, more conventional techniques when using this multi-axis operation.

CNC milling: Like CNC turning, CNC milling precisely removes excess material to produce the desired groove and tooth shapes while the workpiece is held in a lathe. Companies can produce splines, gears, bearings, and other precision components with incredibly tight tolerances thanks to the use of 5-axis CNC milling machinery.

Splined Shaft Applications

In addition to providing outstanding control and a consistent load distribution along the whole spline groove, splined shafts are designed to endure high-speed rotation. Splined shafts can transmit enough torque to power heavy-duty, load-bearing equipment and high-speed applications. Higher speeds and more reliable load transmission are made possible by evenly distributed force without running the risk of catastrophic part misalignments. Splined shafts are essential to a wide range of applications, including manufacturing and industrial facilities, and can be found in personal vehicles, aerospace machinery, and public transportation. Splined shafts frequently appear in the drivetrains of automobiles, where they convert rotary motion into linear motion.

Spline Shafts Informational Video

 

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